The Euro, Gold and the Dollar
For the first time since the Roman Empire, legions across Europe are on the march for conquest under a united Euro banner. The 'Euros' relentlessly pursue the barbaric 'Hannibal', astride his imperial war elephant 'Dolly'; throughout Europe and far beyond the shores of the Mediterranean.
It promises to be one of the great historic wars for economic privilege. Time and youth appear to be on the side of the upstart Euros. Combat experience and initial overwhelming numbers appear to be on the side of Hannibal and his elephant. Some believe that this worldwide war for foreign exchange reserve supremacy will continue indefinitely until one side is decisively defeated. Yet, either side could score a quick decisive victory.
The Euro in Europe
January 1, 2002 is E-Day. For the first time since the Roman Empire, E-Day will see Europeans of many languages use the same currency as a medium of exchange. On E-Day, twelve nations of the European Union (EU), through the European Central Bank (ECB), will launch the existing electronic euro currency into a tangible medium of exchange. The euro has seven denominations of banknotes and eight denominations of coins.
More than 300 million people in Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Portugal and Spain will march as one with the euro currency. They constitute the second most powerful economic market in the world. Increasingly, stocks and bonds will become priced in euros. Additionally, twelve more nations from Europe are talking with the EU about membership.
Euro use is not limited to nations who have officially adopted the euro currency. English corporations such as British Petroleum and Rover have already set up euro bank accounts for business in euros. Many Swiss industrial and tourist businesses are pricing products and services in euros. Yet, neither the English or Swiss have yet made the euro their national currency. Many businesses world-wide, that trade with Europe, are establishing euro bank accounts for business in euros. We can expect the euro to have a major and increasing world-wide impact as an invoicing currency.
The euro is already the de facto currency of Eastern Europe. Currencies from nations such as Estonia and Poland track the D-Mark or the euro. And, the D-Mark has a fixed exchange rate with the euro, so currencies that track the D-Mark also track the euro. Trade relationships closely tie the currencies of eastern Europe with the euro.
The Euro Worldwide
Asian businesses will reduce exchange rate risks and transaction costs by using the euro for European trade. There is talk that China may evenly split its foreign exchange reserves between euros and dollars. Russia seems intent on shifting its foreign-exchange reserves from the dollar to the euro. Iraq now appears to want euros, instead of dollars, for oil. On January 29, 2001, the President of Mexico met with the President of the ECB and other ECB Executive Board members. We should think of the euro in world-wide terms.
Several hundred billions of United States dollar greenbacks circulate outside the U. S. Additional trillions of electronic dollars reside outside the United States. Many of those electronic and paper dollars will be replaced by paper euros, sending a potential tidal wave of dollars home to roost.
The predominant world-wide foreign exchange reserves of nations, banks, businesses and individuals, are dollars. Perhaps half of those current dollar reserves will in time become euros. Where will those displaced dollars go? At this point in time the euro is poised to strongly challenge the role of the dollar as THE reserve currency of the world. Across many geographic, political, business and finance fronts, the world-wide expansion of the euro can be expected to greatly reduce the world-wide demand for dollars. Will an explosion of euros trigger the collapse of the exponential curve of dollar creation? Or, will Hannibal and his elephant stamp out the euro?
"The First International Transaction Benefit"
The currency, trade, banking and finance ripples from E-Day will escalate the world-wide euro/dollar war for the economically privileged role of THE reserve currency of the world for nations, banks, businesses and individuals. For decades the United States standard of living has been artificially increased by our having a pure fiat currency as THE reserve currency of the world. For example, those hundreds of billions of greenbacks overseas were printed at negligible cost. And, the explosion of trillions of overseas electronic dollars were created at essentially no cost. Yet, their first international transaction was to purchase natural resources, finished goods or labor services for Americans and the American economy. I call this unearned, unmerited and secretive economic windfall "the first international transaction benefit". As long as those fiat dollars remain overseas, as public or private reserves, the United States economy has in effect received 'something for nothing' for decades from each of billions of "first time international transactions". This creates a potential disaster waiting to happen.
One might even speculate that the Fed/Treasury assassinated the 30 year Treasury in order to lower long-term rates; AND, as a pre-emptive strike before the public humiliation of euro bonds killing the 30-year Treasury. If so, then expect more Fed/Treasury pre-emptive strikes, especially as we approach E-Day, January 1, 2002. A possible strike that might temporarily strengthen the United States monetarily would be a change to a two-tier (domestic and foreign) currency. Then, selectively, domestic and foreign dollars could be repudiated as part of the war on terrorism and the war on drugs. The current intense Presidential and establishment news media focus on money laundering and the financial funding of terrorism against the U. S. certainly seems to be setting the table for public acceptance of this two-tier currency change as a pre-emptive strike of selective dollar repudiation. Why not? After all, the United States repudiated its gold certificate and silver certificate banknotes; and, the dollar survived those repudiations.
"The International Transaction Return Implosion"
One can imagine what a flight from dollars to euros would do to U. S. imports, and stock and bond markets, denominated in dollars and settled in dollars. It would lower the American standard of living, both directly and indirectly. It would be done directly by existing overseas dollars returning home in exchange for goods and services. It would be done indirectly by the U.S. dollar weakening and purchasing less in world markets. As the fiat dollar reserve privilege to print for free a world-wide fiat medium of exchange contracts; the flow of American fiat dollars, (totally without intrinsic value), in exchange for valuable American natural resources, finished goods and labor services; reverses. The United States economy then gets 'nothing for something'. That is the potential economic disaster for America that is beyond the magnitude of ordinary human understanding, waiting to happen.
That relatively sudden and abrupt reversal and unwinding of decades of exploding billions of "First International Transaction Benefits" I call "The International Transaction Return Implosion". It is a debt 'implosion' because the trillions of overseas dollars as debts that exploded all over the world for decades, are now about ready to reverse and burst inward toward the United States for payment in American natural resources and American products.
An exploding world-wide demand for euro banknotes, euro settlements for trade, euro foreign exchange reserves, and euro denominated debt instruments; creates a world-wide contracting demand for dollar banknotes, dollar settlements for trade, dollar foreign exchange reserves, and government or private dollar denominated debt instruments including bills, notes, and bonds. As demand for dollars contracts, foreign dollars purchase less; and, those foreign dollars start imploding home to the states in order to stake their original claim on American natural resources, goods and services. That is how the euro threatens to trigger the world's historically largest, and first true, "International Transaction Return Implosion". With a world-wide, long standing fiat reserve currency we are in historically unprecedented circumstances. But, logic tells me that dollars overseas are debts; and, as they return, the debts either have to be repaid, or repudiated. If the overseas dollars are debts to be repaid (repurchased) by American resources, goods and labor services; then, the United States standard of living declines severely, beyond imagination. Our central bankers may well get forced on to the horns of a dilemma: An economically created violent revolutionary civil war at home; or, dollar repudiation abroad.
The Euro Talks Gold
Euro advertisements in Europe stress the importance of gold reserves for the euro. First, euro advertisements tout the European public perception that the gold reserves of the Euro-zone nations strengthen the euro and also strengthen Europe's economy. The euro ads also proclaim that most Europeans believe that gold reserves create confidence for strong economies. Thirdly, the euro ads proclaim that the vast majority of Europeans believe that the ECB should have gold reserves equal to the national gold reserves. And, the euro ads proclaim that the gold reserves of the Euro-zone central banks are the world's largest and they create public confidence in the euro. The euro advertisements are simple, yet cleverly testimonial. Their effective simplicity is to bind together three ideas; the euro, gold reserves, and economic strength.
A large gold bar is pictured above the text. The ECB talks gold, gold, and more gold, in relation to the euro. The ECB also has considerably more political independence and decentralization than the Fed. The primary objective of the ECB for the euro is stated to be price stability with a medium term goal of consumer price increases at or below two percent per year. By treaty, Euro nations must comply with two debt limitations. First, each euro nation must have an annual budget deficit of less than three percent of gross national product. Secondly, the total national debt of each nation must remain less than sixty percent of gross national product. Euro nations proclaim that their budget deficits are strictly limited each year; and, also limited in total amount for each nation. The ECB will conduct a single, more politically independent, monetary policy for all twelve euro nations. Gold, fiscal limitations, and monetary restraint- it sounds pretty good!
The Gold/Dollar Currency Exchange Relationship
From its creation by Nixon, the primary adversary of the fiat dollar has been gold. The true weakness of the dollar is documented by the nature of the dollar supporters war against gold in order to prop up the weak dollar and artificially lower the gold/dollar currency exchange relationship. Central bankers have in desperation had to resort to increasing the supply of physical gold available in the marketplace by frequent auction sales from their own gold reserves. Such sales of physical gold reserves is akin to desperately slowly sawing off ones' arms and legs in order to keep the trunk of the body appearing to be strong and healthy.
Bankers, and their surrogates, have also attacked the gold/dollar currency exchange relationship by irrational and financially dangerous massive shorting of gold in paper gold markets. The massive selling of paper gold derivatives, backed by apparently unlimited legal tender dollars, has been used to artificially suppress and control the gold/dollar currency exchange relationship. This is akin to the historic medical practice of cutting and bleeding ill patients in order to restore them to health.
The dollar forces in Washington and Wall Street have also attacked gold as money/currency by publicly ridiculing the "barbarous relic". As part of institutionalized white collar crime, the 'experts' and the establishment media have shamelessly manipulated markets and promoted investments that are either financially unsound dollar debt instruments; or, businesses awash with dollar debts and unrealistic manipulated accounting. All of these manipulative fraudulent actions have served to artificially lower the gold/dollar currency exchange relationship and to thus create the false perception of a 'strong dollar'.
The Pressure Cooker and the Balloon
By: 1) Liquidating a continuing portion of central bank physical gold reserves; and by, 2) the essentially unlimited selling of dollar denominated paper derivatives of gold; and by, 3) ridicule of gold; and by, 4) shamelessly promoting unsound investments that are either directly, or indirectly, dollar debts; the purchasing power of gold has been artificially compressed into an overheated pressure cooker. At the same time, the purchasing power of the elastic dollar has been artificially expanded like the air in an elastic balloon.
The gold/dollar currency exchange relationship has been severely artificially distorted by this mostly covert United States government/Wall Street war on gold as currency. We hope that gold will resume its historic role as THE currency of the world. The pressure cooker will explode and the elastic balloon will implode.. These two consequences are mathematically unavoidable. However, the third consequence; "gold will resume its historic role as THE currency of the world," is at peril.
The Dollar and the de facto Fractional Reserve Silver Market
Currently, for the second time, the modern fiat dollar faces a major challenge by physical silver. The dollar forces have attacked silver in much the same way that they have attacked gold: Shorts backed by apparently unlimited dollars, paper derivatives and ridicule. However, the bankers have spent their ammunition of physical silver. For years an annual production supply/demand shortfall of silver has used up most of the above ground supplies of physical silver.
Year by year, paper silver has expanded, while available physical silver stocks have contracted. This has created an overextended, unstable and unsound de facto fractional reserve silver system. We are now seeing the beginnings of a shortage of physical silver. One, ten, and hundred ounce silver bars have been bought and melted into good delivery one thousand ounce silver bars. Now, many coin dealers and bullion dealers who have traditionally sold one, ten, and hundred ounce silver bars to the public, often have none and are apparently unable to order them at a realistic price. This increasingly apparent shortage of physical silver now threatens runaway bull markets for silver and gold. A lack of physical silver causing a runaway silver bull market would probably set gold free in a parallel runaway gold bull market. Gold is also bogged down in a manipulative de facto fractional reserve gold system. However, the central banks still have substantial reserves of gold that threaten the gold market with more central bank auction sales. That fear for gold investors will likely turn to greed if silver breaks free.
The Gold Islamic Dinar, the Silver Islamic Dirham
and Banks Based on Islamic Law
There are over a billion Muslims. Most, with wealth, are westernized in monetary and banking matters. The Islamic Dinar is a gold coin that weighs 4.3 grams. The Islamic Dirham is a silver coin that weighs 3.0 grams. Traditional Islamic banking, based on Islamic Law, excludes fractional reserve banking and interest-bearing debt. The coins are minted as mediums of exchange, based on metallic content. Rebirth of these historic Islamic practices is in its infancy. Yet, considering the size of the Muslim population, even a partial return to historic Muslim banking and currency practices would severely impact all fiat currencies and fractional reserve banks. Needless to say, oil priced and invoiced in gold dinars would. . .
The Dollar and Debt
The dollar resides in the Trauma Section of the world's Monetary Emergency Room. Fiat currencies, like people, become feeble and old, and die. The killing cancer for the fiat dollar is debt. For nothing except cancer grows and consumes like debt. Dollar denominated debts have 'Hannibal' and the dollar bankers desperately 'pushing on a string'. Dollar holders are overwhelmed with debt; be they individuals, corporations, local governments, or federal governments. Unpayable dollar denominated debts have to be liquidated, by currency inflation or by default. And those debts are so pervasive world-wide, that either way, the dollar probably fights its' last desperate and powerful "Battle of the Bulge" before it too runs out of gas and dies.
The Euro: Fiat Reserve Dollar # 2
What shall be the new fiat reserve currency to replace the dollar for the next K-Wave cycle? The Euro! Euroland central banks have gold; but, in reality the euro, as presently constituted, is just another fiat currency like the dollar. The ECB 'talks the gold talk' in its advertisements promoting the euro currency. However, the ECB and the euro do NOT 'walk the gold walk'. Neither domestic European euros; nor foreign euros, are redeemable for the token gold reserves of the ECB; or, for the substantial gold reserves of the national member central banks. The chief 'asset' of the euro is its extreme youth and the absence of many years of accumulated euro denominated debts around the world. However, it is highly questionable as to whether euro creation, within a fractional reserve banking system, can in the long run be controlled by the ECB. I personally think that such a notion of possible restraint of euro creation within a fractional reserve banking system is delusional. So, an uncontrollable fractional reserve banking system is a fatal flaw for the euro. There is semantically deceptively implied gold backing for the euro within euro advertisements. But, the euro, as presently constituted, has no meaningful gold backing.
I sense the appearance of another deliberate grand deception so that central bankers can, with another fiat currency, again evade the discipline, and honesty of gold as a medium of exchange. With another fiat currency waiting in the wings, (the euro), the central bankers keep control of covert criminal and political theft of purchasing power by the printing press and by the computer, after the anticipated death of the dollar.
I see the old law enforcement 'good guy/bad guy' routine. The dollar, overextended in debts and collapsed in terms of purchasing power, is the 'bad guy'. The fiat euro currency, draped in a sheepskin of advertising with 'gold' words is the 'good guy'. However, neither European citizens, nor foreign trade partners, can redeem their euros for gold at Euroland central banks.
The euro, as presently constituted, is 'Fiat Reserve Dollar # 2'. With time the euro will become overextended in debts and collapse in terms of purchasing power, and die. But, that will probably not be until the debt liquidation phase of a new K-Wave cycle, more than a half century from now. In the next K-Wave debt liquidation, the euro may be the 'bad guy' and 'Fiat Reserve Dollar #3', draped in fool's gold rhetoric, will be the new 'good guy'.
I fear that in every K-Wave cycle the 'sheeple' will get sheared by another fiat reserve currency like the dollar or the euro; draped in fool's gold rhetoric; but, not redeemable for gold. Even before its banknotes circulate, the euro currency suffers from six long-term fatal flaws. The first fatal flaw is that an abundance of gold or silver coins will not circulate as a euro currency median of exchange. The second fatal flaw for the euro is that euro paper bank notes are not redeemable for gold or silver. The third fatal flaw for the euro is that euros acquired by foreign trade with the euro nations are not redeemable for gold or silver. The fourth flaw is that the overwhelming majority of the l4,400 metric tons of gold belongs to the individual nations and not the ECB. The fifth structural flaw is that for many euro nations to turn their gold reserves over to the ECB in order to back euros would require most unlikely constitutional amendments. And the sixth fatal flaw for the euro is that it operates within an uncontrollable fractional reserve banking system. With these six flaws it is self-evident to me that the euro is NOT gold-backed and its growth is not controllable.
And most importantly, the Euro may quickly and decisively dethrone the mortally wounded dollar as THE world's government and private reserve currency. The Euro may even live for the next thirty to sixty years. But, the Euro, as presently constituted, is nothing more than a newborn Fiat Reserve Dollar #2, that is not entangled with over a half-century explosion of euro debt creation..
The Shearing of the 'Sheeple'
For at least a half-century, we American 'sheeple' have been financially sheared of purchasing power each year. I remember what it was like about fifty years ago. I would take a dime to the corner. For five cents I would buy a large Coke. For another five cents I would buy a large chocolate Hershey bar with almonds. Today, that same ten cent purchase would cost me over two dollars. And, to add insult to injury, I would now have to pay at least a thirteen cent sales tax on that coke and candy bar. That thirteen cents of sales tax is more than my total original purchase cost of ten cents. By the Coke/Hershey Bar measure, the circa 1951 dollar has lost more than 95% of its purchasing power.
I also remember that circa 1951 that I got my hair cut in a downtown Coral Gables barbershop for twenty-five cents. Today, I pay twelve dollars for a lesser haircut (no straight razor trim around the ears). Also, today I am expected to tip. Forget the tip; but, because of the less thorough haircut, by my haircut measure, the circa 1951 U.S. dollar has lost about 98 percent of its purchasing power.
In the past half-century, 95 percent to 98 percent of the 'wool' (purchasing power) has been sheared from the 'sheeple's' dollars. Now, they are coming for our 'hides'- the homes that we return to each night. Have you ever seen 'sheep' with no 'wool' and no 'hides'? Yes! Of course you have! They are the homeless beggars that abound in the cities across America. They are the Americans that you do not wish to make eye contact with. They are the Americans that you pretend do not exist. Many of us, to our dismay, shall soon personally experience that pain, suffering and humiliation; as the loss of purchasing power caused by fiat dollar debt repudiation, economically skins great numbers of the American people alive in a severe and prolonged economic depression. And if the euro, as presently constituted, replaces the dollar as the world's reserve currency; then, our grandchildren shall be sheared for decades and then finally economically skinned alive by the euro. For, the euro is a Trojan horse. As it is presently constituted, the euro is gold paint on the outside; and, another band of criminal, conquering and looting white collar barbarian central bankers on the inside. The euro is simply a de facto young step-child of the dollar. The euro as presently constituted is simply Fiat Reserve Dollar # 2.
The imperialistic central bankers shearing of the 'sheeple', with their white collar crimes, shall not cease unless physical gold and physical silver and physical copper currency are DEMANDED as daily mediums of exchange, independent of a fractional reserve banking system, and for purchases large and small. The euro, because of its youth and relative lack of debt, is a vast improvement over the dollar with its overextended debts. But, the euro is still just fool's gold and 'Fiat Reserve Dollar # 2'.
The White Collar Barbarians
Forget all the polite, friendly and co-operative public rhetoric between the Fed and the ECB. The stakes of the war between the dollar and the euro are much more than substantial. At stake is the privilege to continue performing the greatest historical criminal plundering and looting of purchasing power in the history of the world. At stake is the ownership rights to the greatest criminal financial con game in the history of the world: The world-wide use of a fiat currency as a reserve currency. If the euro wins; then, the Europeans receive the financial privilege and economic gains of selling to the world essentially cost-free computer entry and paper fiat currency reserves, for tangible goods and real labor services. If the euro wins; then, the Europeans would become able to loot and plunder the purchasing power of the world in order to artificially raise the standard of living in Europe. If the euro wins; then, the Europeans would become the ruling white collar barbarians; able to do as the Americans have done for more than a half-century. (Nixon closing the gold window turned all outstanding previously created dollars into fiat dollars.) If the euro wins, then the Europeans will in due course replace the Americans as the most hated people in the world.
If the dollar loses the war with the euro; then, the United States privilege of criminally plundering and looting the purchasing power of the world, via the sale of essentially cost-free fiat dollar reserves for natural resources, tangible goods and real labor services, stops. If the dollar loses; then, the criminal practice of the United States plundering and looting the purchasing power of the world via dollarization, stops. If the dollar loses; then the decades long use of the dollar in order to artificially raise the standard of living in America by monetarily looting and plundering foreign purchasing power, stops. Hence, an even longer and more severe economic depression will occur in the United States, more than likely with increased domestic violence and increased risk of revolution.
My how modern imperialism has evolved. We no longer send armies to plunder and loot foreign lands of their gold and silver. Now, we send bankers. Instead of sending our armies we now send the peoples of the world our bankers and our computer entries (with no intrinsic value) and with no tangible substance. We demand that foreigners pay for the "reserve" of our computer entries (with no intrinsic value); with their natural resources, their finished goods and their labor. And our trading partners who use the dollar as a "reserve" asset must accept this 'exchange' thankfully and humbly, even while we plunder and impoverish them to pervasive hunger. Just look at our cumulative trade deficit. We export our bankers and our computer entries to lie dormant as their public and private "reserves". In exchange for exporting our computer entries with no intrinsic value to lie dormant as "reserves", we import their valuable raw materials and finished products.
It is the biggest criminal con game in the history of the world. And the marks go along with this exploitation while a deep world-wide festering hatred of America and everything American builds and builds. To the rest of the world, the 'ugly American' is a banker with a computer. The international public and private global banks profess altruism and such noble intents to third world nations. All the while the bankers are criminally plundering their purchasing power and creating decades of countless deaths by starvation throughout the world.
What usurper central bank shall wear the illegitimate crown of the king of the moneychangers? What central bank shall wear the papier-mâché crown of the king of the white-collar barbarians? Due to obvious superiority, the outcome of ongoing wars often seems obvious. Due to obvious superiority, the United States had to win in Viet Nam. Due to obvious superiority, the USSR had to win against the Afghans. But, neither did. Our best guess is that the euro will defeat the dollar. However, what will actually happen in the euro/dollar clash of white collar barbarians is anyone's guess.
The imperial Fed has evolved into a desperate and paranoid adversary of gold since Nixon stole the rightful crown of king of the money changers from gold.. Although the ECB itself is a fiat currency, white-collar barbarian; the ECB talks gold with the reality that a euro psychologically coupled with gold in a positive way, has the best chance of winning the euro war with the dollar for the status of THE reserve currency.
Thus gold is the major battlefield in the euro war with the dollar. It is a battlefield carefully selected by the euro as the best available high ground. Gold is the pivot of the seesaw. The plank on one side of the seesaw pivot represents the dollar at war with gold. The plank on the other side represents the euro as a pronounced gold advocate. If the dollar plank goes down on a sustained basis, the euro and gold should go up in relative purchasing power.
The white-collar barbarians at the Fed and the U.S. Treasury made a self-destructive and fatal error when they psychologically and falsely coupled a low dollar/gold currency exchange rate with the pronounced health and prosperity of the United States economy. The ECB is vulnerable to many self-destructive mistakes. But, that is one Fed mistake that the ECB is unlikely to make any time soon.
Hope springs eternal. Some may hope that the euro will in time evolve into a true gold-backed currency with eventual redemption of all euro currency units for gold. My view is that this is highly unlikely. First, I do not see this possibility as pragmatic or long-lasting, because the EU banks function within a fractional reserve banking system. Eventually the ECB would have to close its domestic and foreign gold windows (like the dollar did) because of euro multiplication within a fractional reserve banking system; or, the ECB would continuously have to severely devalue the euro in the gold/euro currency exchange rate because of the constant increase of euros due to a fractional reserve banking system; and, due to the dominant reserve status of the euro.. The blowback from that would eventually be the people of the world having a constantly growing mathematical index (the gold/euro currency exchange rate) of how the bankers were defrauding them. Under such circumstances, one would hope that the people of the world would demand that governments reinstate gold itself as the moneychanger currency (reserve currency) for all other currencies.
Secondly, actual euro/gold redemption is to the severe economic disadvantage of the ECB and its nations because a redeemable gold euro would essentially foreclose the opportunity for ECB nations to criminally loot and plunder the purchasing power of the nations of the world through the use of fiat euros as public and private foreign reserves. Payments between nations in physical gold keeps international trade relatively honest. Gold as the international moneychanger currency assures 'something for something'. A world-wide empire of a primary fiat currency for the payments between nations criminally defrauds the world and enriches without merit the fiat reserve currency creators. A fiat currency as the primary international moneychanger currency (reserve currency) assures the fabulous riches of world-wide 'something for nothing' exchanges. We Americans (our bankers) could not resist that temptation. I do not expect European bankers to resist that temptation. I do not expect any peoples of the world to resist the temptation of fabulous world-wide riches for nothing. That is why we the people must demand a return to circulating physical gold and silver currency, without fractional reserve banking.
DISCLAIMER: This article is not intended as investment advice. It is one person's view from a broad historical and criminological perspective on economic events uniquely unfolding for the first time in history. The information herein is believed to be accurate. However some of the information was obtained from public sources and may or may not be accurate. Please also keep in mind that the author is just a messenger; and, he did not create the existing currency and economic problems, nor does he find anything but sadness in their content.
November 26, 2001
"Atocha" has been an entrepreneur since 1969. He earned BS and MS degrees in Criminology, and is a former professional investigator.
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